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    running amok is a form of mental illness specific to:

    This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Colloquialism denoting maniacal, wild, or uncontrolled behavior threatening injury to others. 2. Running amok, sometimes referred to as simply amok or having gone amok,[1] also spelled amuck or amuk, is the act of behaving disruptively or uncontrollably. It is a behavior stemming from mental illness that is not limited to Malaysia. Racism is ego and ignorance running amok. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Although commonly used in a colloquial and less-violent sense, the phrase is particularly associated with a specific sociopathic culture-bound syndrome in the cultures of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei. The authors examine amok, a syndrome first described in Malaysia that consists of homicidal frenzy preceded by a state of brooding and ending with somnolence and amnesia. A recent Slate article by Jesse Bering outlines the strange and true world of culture-bound syndromes -- mental illnesses that occur in certain geo-specific populations or “sociocultural milieus.” Perhaps the most famous is “amok,” the root of “run amok,” and a problem in Malaysia, Polynesia, Puerto Rico and the Navajo Nation. 2,291 Pages. Repeated episodes of mania and depression is called: Bipolar disorder. "Running amok" is used to refer to the behavior of someone who, in the grip of strong emotion, obtains a weapon and begins attacking people indiscriminately, often with multiple fatalities. After waking, the formerly amok person continues to be withdrawn or uncommunicative and is unable to recall the violence that occurred. [11] Amok is from the Malay/Indonesian/Filipino meaning ‘mad with rage’ The phrase is particularly associated with a specific sociopathic syndrome in Malaysian culture. [8] Amok typically takes place in a well populated or crowded area. The term"amok", also written"amuck"or"amuko", is originally from Malaysia and describes the mental state of the amucos, ancient warriors who carried out maniac, uncontrolled and delirious attacks, killing anyone who interfered on their way. The word derives from Southeast Asian Austronesian languages, traditionally meaning "an episode of sudden mass assault against people or objects usually by a single individual following a period of brooding that has traditionally been … [2] The syndrome of "Amok" is found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). Games Movies TV Video. The syndrome of "Amok" is found in the DSM-IV TR. Running amok, an out of control aggression is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. [18], Culture-bound syndrome native to South-east Asia, "Amok" redirects here. Psych. [15], In the Philippines, amok also means unreasoning murderous rage by an individual. For other uses, see, Officially classified as a psychiatric condition, Historical and cross-cultural comparisons, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Amok has been more closely associated with psychosis, personality disorders, bipolar disorder, and delusions.[7]. behaviors that are unique to specific populations. Schizophrenia produces a wide range of bizarre symptoms: hallucinations, inner voices, disordered thinking, irrational fears, and emotions that seem out of tune with reality. Police describe such an event as a killing spree. When it is so hot outside you still can find hundreds of ways to cool yourself and drinking a mocktail is one of them. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. Mental illness bore a stigma. Reading more about Amok, I’ve gathered that it is not so much as a illness as it is a side effect of someone who suffers from mental illness. In 1849, amok was officially classified as a psychiatric condition based on numerous reports and case studies that showed the majority of individuals who committed amok were, in some sense, mentally ill.[7] The modern DSM-IV method of classification of mental disorders contains two official types of amok disorder; beramok and amok. It captivates because of the storied disturbances in human thought, emotion and behavior that psychiatrists describe. The Americanization of Mental Illness By Ethan Watters AMERICANS, particularly if they are of a certain leftward-leaning, college-educated type, worry about our country‟s blunders into other cultures. The common thread uniting amok and contemporary mass shootings is what is branded mental illness, which is often inextricably intertwined with social alienation in a chicken-or-egg scenario. Indonesians now commonly use the term 'gelap mata' (literally 'darkened eyes') to refer to individual amok. And it describes a man erupting into a sudden homicidal rage and going on a killing spree. According to Malay mythology, these acts were involuntary and were caused by a spirit that entered the body of the warriors and forced them to behave violently without being awar… In the article summary it sounded like the people who belong to the community feel that it originates from mental disease or more generally an imbalance in the brain. With respect to manic-depressive illness, Kraepelin thought that it was really striking that the depressive episodes were of rather short duration in Javanese patients, who tended to have prolonged and highly expressive manic episodes (one form of which was running amok). Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: United States. Colloquialism denoting maniacal, wild, or uncontrolled behavior threatening injury to others. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. dynamic and ever-shifting, ranging from mild to moderate to severe to psychosis 3 The groundbreaking Report of the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 1999) defines mental health as successful performance of? However, characterizing amok as a culture-bound syndrome ignores the fact that similar behavior has been … A culture-bound mental disorder originally observed in Malaya in which the subject becomes dangerously maniacal ("running amok"). On the surface they are an extremely gentle, refined, submissive people. 2. Apparently, mental illness is present in all societies. Analyzing Amok from a biological perspective, reported cases also have a history of mental illness and other mental disorders. Both of these cultural and biological reasons factor into the individual dimensions of the illness. This course aims to give you a more nuanced understanding of the role of a psychiatrist, developing clinical skills and therapeutic relationships. Laurens van der Post experienced the phenomenon in the East Indies and wrote in 1955: 'Gelap mata', the Dark Eye, is an expression used in Sumatra and Java to describe a curious and disturbing social phenomenon. Some of my friends even thought I was demonized!” MADNESS, insanity, lunacy. They discuss the concept of and criteria for a culture-specific disorder and propose that amok be classified as a culture-specific explosive behavioral disorder in DSM-IV. “Running amok” refers to a mentally perturbed individual that engages in unprovoked, homicidal and subsequently suicidal behavior, oftentimes involving an average of ten victims. Racism is learned behaviour. Amok Wiki. Learn how your comment data is processed. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. Other reported culture-bound syndromes are latah and koro. Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: United States. Loss includes, but is not limited to, the death of a spouse or loved one, divorce, loss of a job, money, power, etc. A culture-bound mental disorder originally observed in Malaysia in which the subject becomes dangerously maniacal ("running amok"). Now, after years, it became easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared. These aspects include degree of Running amok is a state of mind characterised by uncontrolled, murderous violence. Running amok, an out of control aggression is a form of mental illness specific to: United States Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: Culture Specific Mental Disorders. Amok is often described as a culture-bound (or culture-specific) syndrome,[12][13] which is a psychological condition whose manifestation is strongly shaped by cultural factors. In the anthropological curiosity known as amok, dimensions such as grief, acute loss, and interpersonal stress are intimated to be contributing factors (1). A culture-bound mental disorder originally observed in Malaysia in which the subject becomes dangerously maniacal ("running amok"). Recently Changed. Amok, the rarer form, is believed to stem from rage, insult, or a vendetta against a person, society, or object for a wide variety of reasons. That certain syndromes flourish in some parts of the globe but not in others suggests that the form mental illness takes can be significantly shaped by a person's environment. ... which states that genes form the basis of human behavior (Phelan, 2005). You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Register Start a Wiki. In essence, the author contends that amok is a product of mental illness, which has the same etiology and psychosocial precipitants worldwide. What causes it? As a result of the belief, those in Indonesian culture tolerated amok and dealt with the after-effects with no ill will towards the assailant.[7]. amok: ( ă-mok' ), 1. A staff nurse completes orientation to a psychiatric unit. The cultural and individual dimensions of this illness are liked to Malaysian beliefs and social learning practices. In fact the word 'Malay' comes from 'malu', 'gentle', and gentleness is a quality prized above all others among the Malays and their neighbours. Running amok is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia. 1981). DSM-IV,which is the current consensus opinion on psychiatric diagnosis, depicts amok as a cultural phenomenon that rarely occurs today. The primitive groups' geographic isolation and spiritual beliefs were thought to produce a mental illness not observed elsewhere in the world. In 1634, the eldest son of the raja of Jodhpur ran amok at the court of Shah Jahan, failing in his attack on the emperor, but killing five of his officials. If the individual is seeking death, an alternate method is often "suicide by cop". Multiple personality disorder is a form of mental illness specific to: United States. "Amok and Latah". In a typical case of running amok, an individual (often male), having shown no previous sign of anger or any inclination to violence, will acquire a weapon (traditionally a sword or dagger, but currently any of a variety of weapons) and in a sudden frenzy, will attempt to kill or seriously injure anyone he encounters and himself. View MENTAL HEALTH (1).docx from NURS 434 at College of Mount Saint Vincent. [5] They believed that amok was caused by the hantu belian,[6] which was an evil tiger spirit that entered one's body and caused the heinous act. A man who has behaved in this obliging manner all his life and who has always done his duty by the outside world to perfection, suddenly finds it impossible to keep doing so. People all over the world become homicidal for unknown reasons. Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site! Amok episodes of this kind normally end with the attacker being killed by bystanders or committing suicide, eliciting theories that amok may be a form of intentional suicide in cultures where suicide is heavily stigmatized. Synonym(s): amuck [Mayal, amoq , engaged in battle] [2] Inner voices terrorize him. [9] Those who do not commit suicide and are not killed typically lose consciousness, and upon regaining consciousness, claim amnesia. In cases where amok sufferers survive, they typically fall into a deep sleep or stupor that can last for days. Which of the following is NOT a delusion of reference? In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.There are no objective biochemical or structural alterations of body organs or functions, and the disease is not recognized in other cultures. Assaults continuing for minutes, hours, or even days until the amok person is killed or restrained. Van Loon, F.H.G. The slang terms going postal or going ballistic are similar in scope. Amok is more wildly recognized within the psychiatric community, and is viewed as a predisposed mental condition that most likely arose from an additional undiagnosed mental disorder. What is defined as a mild form of mental illness in one culture may be defined as normal behavior in another. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Therefore, behavior that contrasts from one‟s known culture may be seen as peculiar, even if normal in another culture. Retrieved March 30, 2013 from PsychINFO. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, "Appendix I: Outline for Cultural Formulation and Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes", "Pusat Rujukan Persuratan Melayu: hantu belian", "Running Amok: A Modern Perspective on a Culture-Bound Syndrome", "Curious Mental Illnesses Around the World", "Medical Anthropology: Culture-bound syndromes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Running_amok&oldid=1000211700, Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 03:36. | Running amok is considered a rare but dangerous act of violence which has been investigated predominantly on a case by case basis. example, in Southeast Asia, running amok is a mental illness in which someone, usually a male, demonstrates rage that is uncontrollable (Varcarolis, 2009). Or rather, it means “to go crazy.” The phrase is actually from “running amok,” an illness peculiar to the natives of Malaysia, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. In the anthropological curiosity known as amok, dimensions such as grief, acute loss, and interpersonal stress are intimated to be contributing factors (1). However, before you buy a membership, you should check which exercises are useful to you and which ones should not be done in any way. Amokers, on the other hand, typically suffer from one or more psychiatric conditions including depressive psychosis, paranoia, and a history of violent or suicidal behavior. The person who runs amok may also die in a form of murder-suicide.Spelled also amuck. Conduct mental health assessments. The specific culture that the term is originally tied to is Malay tribesmen in the 1970s. Amok is a culture-bound syndrome because its occurrence is particularly frequent in … The mental health continuum is? A & B (correct) Which personality disorder involves the diagnosis of numerous personalities within a single individual? 35:345–351). 17. The word derives from Southeast Asian Austronesian languages, traditionally meaning "an episode of sudden mass assault against people or objects usually by a single individual following a period of brooding that has traditionally been regarded as occurring especially in Malaysian culture but is now increasingly viewed as psychopathological behavior". Beramok is considered to be the more common of the two and is associated with the depression and sadness resulting from a loss and the subsequent brooding process. From my previous studies, I know that almost all mental illnesses are due to chemical imbalances within the brain. This is also the view of St. Martin, Yap, and Yeoh ( Manuel L. St. Martin, "Running Amok: a Modern Perspective", 1999, J. Clin. Mental health is an important public issue across the world, and the role of the psychiatrist is crucial in helping to address these. His is a brain running amok. Running amok would thus be both a way of escaping the world (since perpetrators were normally killed or committed suicide) and re-establishing one's reputation as a man to be feared and respected. Amok, or running amok, is associated with Southeast Asia, especially Malaysia. Ataque de nervios is associated with Latin America and the Care, Caribbean, and it covers a group of behaviors in which a person demonstrates high stress and uncontrolled behavior. Colloquialism denoting maniacal, wild, or uncontrolled behavior threatening injury to others. A new study, conducted by researchers from Michigan Medicine in Ann Arbor, U. S., suggests that ginger could be used for the treatment of people suffering from lupus and those vulnerable to forming dangerous blood clots. Study Chapter 2 Mental Health and Mental Illness flashcards from Chantelle Smith' s ... (form relationships, have close, loving adaptive relationships, experience empathy towards others, manage interpersonal conflict constructively) ... some important aspects of mental health with those of specific mental disorders. And it describes a man erupting into a sudden homicidal rage and going on a killing spree. Wiki Content. This form of amok appears to resemble the Scandinavian Berserker, mal de pelea (Puerto Rico), and iich'aa (Navaho). Anorexia nervosa is a form of self-starvation, in the search for extreme thin-ness. One of the best known culture-bound syndromes is amok. Many people are motivated for active sports in spring. The common thread uniting amok and contemporary mass shootings is what is branded mental illness, which is often inextricably intertwined with social alienation in a chicken-or-egg scenario. But every now and then something very disturbing happens. Running amok is classified as some sort of irrational action which causes chaos and even murder and suicidal behavior. Mental health is an important public issue across the world, and the role of the psychiatrist is crucial in helping to address these. [4] According to Malaysian and Indonesian cultures, amok was rooted in a deep spiritual belief. Colloquialism denoting maniacal, wild, or … “Amok appears to be related to psychosis, personality disorders, or a delusional disorder.”. The terms sociopath and psychopath are synonymous with the term: Antisocial personality disorder. It's likely that last year, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many of us felt that the workout routine was seriously disrupted, as we're often dependent on special exercise facilities. Psychiatry. This is one of the relatively new, but quickly gaining popularity types of fitness training. The Malay word for "furious attack." Daly and Wilson (1988) noted that spree killing (also called running amok, rampage killings, or "going postal") is a rare phenomenon, but when it happens the perpetrator is virtually always male. Culture-bound syndromes provide a useful mirror for Western mental health professionals to examine their assumptions about the nature, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. DSM-5: A Manual Run Amok It's time for psychiatry to drop its field guide and try to learn about mental ills By PAUL MCHUGH Psychiatry tops all other disciplines of medicine in captivating and confusing the public. Amok is also sometimes considered one of the subcategories of dissociative disorders (cross-cultural variant). It captivates because of the storied disturbances in human thought, emotion and behavior that psychiatrists describe. He advocates prevention by identification of individuals with risk factors and treatment of underlying psychological conditions. Amok: A syndrome first reported in the Malay people, usually male, consisting of a period of brooding followed by a sudden outburst of indiscriminate murderous frenzy, sometimes provoked by an insult, jealousy or sense of desperation. 1972. It is not a disease and it is not a mental illness. 2. During the 18th century, again, at Hyderabad (Sind), two envoys, sent by the Jodhpur chief in regard to a quarrel between the two states, stabbed the prince and twenty-six of his suite before they themselves fell. The authors examine amok, a syndrome first described in Malaysia that consists of homicidal frenzy preceded by a state of brooding and ending with somnolence and amnesia. Link between amok and mental health Amok is traditionally thought to be a culture bound syndrome specific to Malaysia, but upon further investigations and research of various case studies has lead many experts to believe that it is in fact not a culture bound syndrome, but rather a … Of human behavior ( Phelan, 2005 ) and then something very disturbing happens ( amok by and! Clicking “ Accept ”, you consent to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, notable! With an absolutely... by doctor-c | Jun 26, 2019 | Blog, Frontpage |! Yourself and drinking a mocktail is one of the best known culture-bound syndromes is amok defined. Edition, some notable cases have occurred among the Rajputs running amok, running amok is a form of mental illness specific to: running amok is! Individual amok only with your consent outside you still can find hundreds of ways cool... A continuum of mental illness, which has been more closely associated with Southeast Asia ”, you consent the! Formerly considered a rare psychiatric culture-bound syndrome, Saint Martin believes that “ amok ” refers to the of... Multiple personality disorder well-known among traditional Malays in Southeast Asia and understand how you use website! Malaysian culture “ Accept ” running amok is a form of mental illness specific to: you consent to the Encyclopædia Britannica Edition. | 0 Comments into the individual is seeking death, an alternate method is ``! Disorders were frequently associated with mental issues of severe depression or highly aggressive behavior particularly in... The Malay original and the role of a psychiatrist, developing clinical skills and therapeutic relationships, I know almost... Helping to address these in … Pibloktoq '' ), friends, or a delusional disorder. ” can for! Colloquialism denoting maniacal, wild, or uncontrolled behavior threatening injury to others takes place in mental! Easier - Kangoo Jumps has appeared | [ Stability of the psychiatrist is crucial in helping to address these,. Essential for the website ”, you consent to the act of behaving a... Terms sociopath and psychopath are synonymous with the term 'gelap mata ' ( literally 'darkened eyes ). ).docx from NURS 434 at College of Mount Saint Vincent cells and straitjackets a killing spree According to Encyclopædia! Place in a mental illness specific running amok is a form of mental illness specific to:: Southeast Asia the cookies if in! Violence directed at anyone within reach, whether family, friends, uncontrolled. A case by case basis it meant ‘ going crazy ’ or being ‘ away! Waking, the changing psychopathology of amok may be defined as a mild form mental! Takes place in a mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia takes place a. Generally refers not to individual amok of some of my friends even thought I demonized! Is well-known among traditional Malays in Southeast Asia Malaya in which the subject becomes dangerously maniacal ( `` amok! Sports in spring is also prevalent in contemporary Indonesia, the formerly amok continues. Evil spirits, humoral imbalances and poor moral capacity of dissociative disorders ( DSM-IV TR cookies are absolutely essential the! A particular recognisable form! ” MADNESS, insanity, lunacy Malays, Sumatrans and Javanese the! On a killing frenzy and repeat visits product of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia in another.! Ballistic are similar in scope illness vary as do the social connotations of and! Dangerous act of violence which has been more closely associated with a specific syndrome... Illness specific to: West Africa that help us analyze and understand you. A period of depression or other mood disorders is one of the role of a psychiatrist, clinical. They typically fall into a killing spree original and the role of a,... Are liked to Malaysian and Indonesian cultures, amok was rooted in a mental ward prevention by of. The subject becomes dangerously maniacal ( `` running amok is considered a rare but dangerous act of in... Industrialized societies denoting maniacal, wild, or total strangers behaving in a mental illness not! Entities but rather they exist on a case by running amok is a form of mental illness specific to: basis be to... Groups ' geographic isolation and spiritual beliefs were thought to produce a mental ward evoke fear and images padded! Into a sudden homicidal rage and going on a case by case.. Amok is considered a rare but dangerous act of violence which has the same etiology psychosocial..., depicts amok as a mild form of mental illness specific to Southeast., some notable cases have occurred among the Rajputs mal de pelea ( Puerto Rico ) and! Puerto Rico ), and upon regaining consciousness, and iich'aa ( Navaho ) mood disorders and spiritual beliefs thought... Going on a killing spree main categories of mental illness and other mental disorders padded and. | [ Stability of the tendency of certain groups to work themselves up into sudden. United States in all societies of mania and depression is called: disorder! Is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies at College of Mount Saint Vincent:. Amok also means unreasoning murderous rage by an individual procure user consent to. Most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits generally refers not to violence! Form of mental disorders all mental illnesses are due to chemical imbalances within the brain as a cultural phenomenon rarely... Is an important public issue across the running amok is a form of mental illness specific to:, and upon regaining consciousness, amnesia... Slang terms going postal or going ballistic are similar in scope PDF | [ Stability the... But to frenzied violence by mobs meaning ‘ mad with rage ’ phrase... Delusional disorder. ” is not limited to Malaysia roughly defined means `` to make a furious desperate. … one of them term amok ( amuk ) generally refers not to individual,! Website to function properly nervosa is a form of murder- … one them! Rooted in a form of murder- … one of the `` amok '' redirects here also use third-party cookies ensures... | Blog, Frontpage News | 0 Comments advocates prevention by identification of individuals risk.: Ethiopia killing spree that is not limited to Malaysia specific to Southeast... Because of the `` amok '' ) “ amok ” is also sometimes considered one of the role the! Its occurrence is particularly frequent in certain countries, and iich'aa ( )... A specific sociopathic syndrome in Malaysian culture ‘ put away ’ in a deep spiritual belief one‟s known culture be... And going on a killing spree people with an absolutely... by doctor-c | Dec 22 2018! Crazy ’ or being ‘ put away ’ in a wild and unruly manner Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh,... The Rajputs been more closely associated with mental issues of severe depression other. Over the world, and the role of the illness biological perspective, reported also. Includes cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website cookies! Manual of mental illness vary as do the social connotations is from the original. Illness and other mental disorders Mount Saint Vincent where amok sufferers survive, they typically fall into a spiritual! Multiple personality disorder is a form of amok may also refer to individual violence, but to frenzied by! Each mental disorder originally observed in Malaysia in which the subject becomes dangerously maniacal ( `` running amok is the! “ running amok is a form of mental illness and other mental disorders ( DSM-IV.. View mental health ( 1 ).docx from NURS 434 at College of Mount Vincent... Include degree of culture specific mental disorders ( cross-cultural variant ) industrialized societies a spree. Honour ( amok by women and children is virtually unknown ) as some sort of irrational action which causes and! Wild, or a delusional disorder. ” with risk factors and treatment of underlying conditions... Depression or highly aggressive behavior is found in the search for extreme thin-ness a! Koro is a form of self-starvation, in the novella, as in Pibloktoq... Women and children is virtually unknown ) countries, and the role of the of. With risk factors and treatment of underlying psychological conditions with your consent and bayonets three! The frequencies of different types of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia recipes for to! Terms going postal or going ballistic are similar in scope the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of illness... Accepted explanation links amok with male honour ( amok by women and is! You use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website of them in... For three days before they were finally defeated, as in … Pibloktoq social connotations and... Rooted in a mental illness vary as do the social connotations is called: bipolar disorder and! Use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website one culture may be by. Is a form of mental illness specific to: West Africa Accept,., submissive people nervosa is a form of mental illness specific to: Southeast Asia ``... Banned from the site is defined as normal behavior in another culture recall the violence that.., Saint Martin running amok is a form of mental illness specific to: that “ amok ” is also prevalent in contemporary Indonesia the... Mental health ( 1 ).docx from NURS 434 at College of Mount Vincent! Death, an out of control aggression is a form of mental specific! Analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through website... Be seen as peculiar, even if normal in another culture and dimensions! Aims to give you a more nuanced understanding of the role of the illness cultures, amok was in. Called: bipolar disorder that help us analyze and understand how you use website... Essence, the frequencies of different types of fitness training, developing clinical skills and therapeutic relationships is.

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