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    did sparta have two kings

    In the language of mythologic descent, the kingship passed from the Leleges to the Greeks. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. Spartan kings received a recurring posthumous hero cult like that of the Doric kings of Cyrene. Sparta was a constitutional monarchy, made up of the kings, advised by and (supposedly) controlled by a college of ephors; a council of elders called the Gerousia; and an assembly, known as the Apella or Ecclesia. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the descendants of Heracles who supposedly conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. Taygetus (2,407 m) and to the east by Mt. Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. Like Mycenaean kings in Greece, the Spartans had a political leader (the Eurypontidae kings) and a war leader (the Agaidai kings). In order to get Spartan citizenship back, the kings have two requests--win Sparta a wreath in the Olympics, and win Boetia for Sparta. Spartan political system was a combination of monarchy (kings), oligarchy (Gerousia) and democracy (ephoroi, ephors). Lv 7. Parnon (1,935 m). Sparta had a very unique system of government. The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of … For royal houses, the patronymic was formed from the name of the founder or of an early significant figure of a dynasty. Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. Democratic It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[1][n 1] coming from two separate lines. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. During the 5th century BC Sparta was very powerful. King was succeeded by his the first born son after he … That mythologizing extended even to place names. Called Kings but elected. There was an Assembly. 10 years ago. Robert Drews (1983: 81) The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of the two founding families, Agaidai and Eurypontidae. Spartan kings had royal reputation, first places in all, holding the biggest portion of lands. In addition to the kings, there were five ephors (magistrates) that were elected from aristocratic families. Sparta had a special policy maker, the gerousia, a council consisting of 28 elders over the age of 60, elected for life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings. Having two kings share power was fairly common in several Bronze Age Indo-European societies; they shared power but had different roles. There was an assembly of citizens, but this did not have the power of the citizen assembly in democratic Athens. Almost immediately after the two boys were born Aristodemus croaked. 2 Answers. Answer Save. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. Cynuria is said to have been colonized by. Both Kings had jointly decided. Although not much is known about the kings — note how few of the kings listed below even have regnal dates — ancient historians have pieced together general information about how the government worked. Sir William Smith. This is a real shame because Sparta had its own unique political system with two, count them, two kings sitting on the throne at once. Spartan government was a mix of monarchy and oligarchy because Sparta was ruled by two kings and the kings were the head of Sparta's governing body which was the Council of Elders. For one, Sparta had two kings. Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. Relevance? A ruling family might thus have a number of dynastic names; for example, Agis I named the Agiads, but he was a Heraclid and so were his descendants. In time of peace, power was concentrated in a Senate of 30 members. It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[n 1] coming from two separate lines. Reputedly founded in the 9th century bce with a rigid oligarchic constitution, the state of Sparta for centuries retained as lifetime corulers two kings who arbitrated in time of war. By Bruno Currie Page 245, A Classical Dictionary By John Lemprière. Thus, battlefield success was a way for the dueling monarchs to one-up each other, according to historian Scott Rusch’s 2011 book Sparta at … The Agiad line was regarded as being senior to the Eurypontid line.[3]. Agesilaus II, distinguished king of Sparta, being asked which was the greater virtue, valor or justice, replied: "Unsupported by justice, valor is good for nothing; and if all men were just, there would be no need of valor". How old did you have to be to be in the Council of Elders? These elder… King was succeeded by his the first born son after he came to power. 4. Both kings would ensure that one king would not abuse or obtain to much power, that they could cause hard to the state. Division of power, internal and external. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith (Ed.) The institution was already well-developed by the 8th century BC, when Theopompos of the Eurypontid clan emerges as the first recorded Spartan king The council governed the city, declared wars, supervised the kings, and could propose laws. They were presumed to have been named after kings and divinities. Division of power, internal and external. The Atreidai (Latin Atreidae) belong to the Late Bronze Age, or the Mycenaean Period. Sparta was ruled by two hereditary kings. Pg, A Prosopography of Lacedaemonians, Part 396. We have all heard about kingdoms divided between two princes, or about co-regencies of father and son, but one can hardly visualize a single state ruled by two sovereigns. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the … The Constitution was effected in the following way. There are way too many other regions that got 0 content since launch and deserve more attention. Favorite Answer. In his Histories, Herodotus explains to us how this dual kingship came about. These kings working in partnership would share their duties, and by the nature of the dual leadership would keep the other king honest. Not shown is Lycurgus, the lawgiver, a younger son of the Eurypontids, who served a brief regency either for the infant Charilaus (780–750 BC) or for Labotas (870–840 BC) the Agiad. If the descent was not known or was scantily known, the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology. They were the supreme commanders of the army. They were there to call up the army and receive foreign envoys. 0 0. epic username. A list of Spartan kings and an insight into why the two kings became an institution in Sparta. I need the information for a History assignment. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). Two Kings of Sparta Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. There was also a Council of Elders (Gerousia), each member of which was over the age of 60 and could serve for life. The kings held little judicial or domestic power in Sparta, but each was considered an equal and supreme commander of the army during wartime, and had the power to declare war and lead the army in battle. Agiad people were treated as a tribe, presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its name. The Lacedaemonids contain Greeks from the age of legend, now treated as being the Bronze Age in Greece. I need the information for a History assignment. The kings held little judicial or domestic power in Sparta, but each was considered an equal and supreme commander of the army during wartime, and had the power to declare war and lead the army in battle. The Constitution of Sparta had fair organs-the King, Jerusia, Appella and Ephor. As they both claimed descent from Hercules, the kings were considered above the other Spartiates by virtue of their leadership positio… Sparta in time developed a system of dual kingship (two kings ruling at once). The Assembly had men over the age of 30. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. This want of information was attributed by most of the Greeks to the stability of the Spartan constitution, which had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus. T… Kings often became divinities, in their religion. Oligarchy– Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). Indeed the history of classical Sparta is rife with examples of the royal houses butting heads politically. By Abraham Rees. In order to get Spartan citizenship back, the kings have two requests--win Sparta a wreath in the Olympics, and win Boetia for Sparta. Sparta was ruled by two kings and a Council of Elders. 10 years ago. Dual Kingship in Ancient Sparta By Georgia Connelly (King of Sparta), Josie Copley (King of Sparta) and Eloise Dwyer (Poor Peasant)..... Benefits of Dual Kingship What is Sparta? Remarkable examples of this include the famed first Leonidas (ruled 490–480 BCE for the house of Agaidai), who traced his ancestry to Hercules and was featured in the movie "300". The kings belonged to the Council of Elders (Gerousia) which had 5 Ephors along with nobles who were over 60 years of age. The common people had no say Clarification Sparta had two kings. Sparta had two kings, or basileis. Intended to stop any king trying to overstay his wellcome. Sparta in time developed a system of dual kingship (two kings ruling at once). This was due to her army, which was feared by other Greeks. A Spartan king named Aristodemus had twin sons. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the largest river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water.The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. In peacetime they were responsible for the cult and to some legal issues. Agis himself was responsible for establishing a port city called Patrai on the north shore of th… Sparta also had a council that created laws. Favorite Answer. This List of Kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnese. There are way too many other regions that got 0 content since launch and deserve more attention. Spartans had a very unique political system consisting of two kings who took care of the military affairs, region improvements, such as roads and bridges, and were important religious figures. This meant that the kings were not related to each other, but their titles were passed down to their sons. [4] The kings' firstborn sons, as heirs apparent, were the only Spartan boys expressly exempt from the Agoge; however, they were allowed to take part if they so wished, and this endowed them with increased prestige when they ascended the throne. Sparta was insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a mission tree, unique events, and unique units due to 300 fanboys. As per the peculiar provisions of the Constitution of Sparta two kings ruled over the country at a time. Sparta was unusual among the Greek city-states in that it maintained its kingship past the Archaic age. It would be, if the kings were not just two out of thirty people in the council which acted as a court of justice and advisors on political affairs. With roots going back to its founding myth, Sparta had not one, but two royal houses: the Eurypontid and the Agiad. 2 Answers. 5. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. Page. Sparta was a dinarchy, under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors' and a council. Probably ruling in the 11th century BC, he was important for two achievements – the establishment of Patrai and the capture of Helos. 2 kings. Why did Sparta have two kings? The Gerousia was a council made up of men who were over the age of 60; they made decisions in criminal cases. Their role in Spartan life was shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities. This meant that the kings were not related to each other, but their titles were passed down to their sons. The Heracleidae became ascendant in the Eurotas valley with the Dorians who, at least in legend, entered it during an invasion called the Return of the Heracleidae; driving out the Atreids and at least some of the Mycenaean population. There were five ephors who were elected annually and swore fealty to Sparta rather than the kings. Oligarchy Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). The purpose of having two kings was to prevent one man from gaining too much power. This List of Kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnese. Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). Called Kings but elected. The two kings were more like military commanders and generals. The Lelegid were the descendants of Lelex (a back-formation), ancestor of the Leleges, a Pelasgian tribe inhabiting the Eurotas valley before the Greeks, who, according to the mythological descent, amalgamated with the Greeks. Pindar and the cult of heroes. The kings would lead armies into battle and attend religious ceremonies. Two Kings of Sparta. Now that reminds us of oligarchic government. A brief description of the Spartan kings with a list of the known kings. The kings were automatic members of the Gerousia, the council of 28 elders picked for life plus the two kings. Sparta was ruled by two kings. Answer Save. Kings of Sparta Sparta due to its constitution would have two kings rule over the state. If it is right that this title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this was originally one of its less remarkable aspects. This article is part of the series: The Brothers of the most Beautiful Woman= The Spartan Helen … The Spartan kings as Heracleidae claimed descent from Heracles, who through his mother was descended from Perseus. It is odd, however, that the number two should have been so permanently entrenched. • Four villages along the Eurotas These kings would lead the army in times of war. Priests were people outside of the regnal pair and neither of the kings was considered sacred — although they could enable contact with the gods, they were never interpreters. As the name of Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, this dynasty may well be protohistoric. Sparta was unusual among the Greek city-states in that it maintained its kingship past the Archaic age. How many kings ruled Sparta? The Spartan kings weren't believed to be supernaturally strong or sacred, either. The purpose of having two kings was to … The council was made up of the two kings and twenty-eight elders. Sparta was ruled by two hereditary kings. Kings of Sparta (Dictionary of Government). Why did Sparta have two kings? Within this Delphic Oracle it was stated that Sparta was to have two kings Careful there Ancient Sparta … The council consisted of, apart from the two kings with the most influence, twenty-eight people of rich families over the age of sixty. 0 0. epic username. Spartan Constitution. Sparta was following the Tradition of 2 Kings since the time the Spartan Dioscouroi Gods Polydefkes and Kastor, wider known today as Gemini/Twins were reigning over Sparta together. The dynasties themselves, however, were named after the twins' grandsons, the kings Agis I and Eurypon, respectively. At Thermopylae 1 was on the field the other was in Sparta. A dyarchy, rather than a monarchy, effectively divided the strength of the kings and introduced a permanent tension and state of competition between the two houses. In ancient Greece, Sparta was unique in having a dual kingship - two kings from different clans, the Agiads and the Eurypontids, reigning simultaneously. They made decisions about war and peace. They were involved in certain religious or cultic activities, members of the priesthood of Zeus Lacedaemon (a cult group based honoring the mythical king of Laconia) and Zeus Ouranos (Uranus, the primal sky god). Agis I lived on the cusp of Sparta’s recorded history, at a time when the division between fact and legend is unclear. Although this made them relatively weak kings and there was always input from the other pieces of the government on most of the decisions they made, most of the kings were fierce and acted independently most of the time. The dynasty is named after its third king Eurypon. Some of the listed kings are hot-linked. Sparta was insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a mission tree, unique events, and unique units due to 300 fanboys. Intended to stop any king trying to overstay his wellcome. Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern Peloponnese. ephorate, Sparta was ruled by two kings, each having sovereign power over the state? Ancient Greeks named males after their fathers, producing a patronymic with the infix -id-; for example, the sons of Atreus were the Atreids. Lv 7. By Alfred S. Bradford. Each year the ephors, or magistrates, chose the 300 best hoplites in Sparta to become the hippeis—elite soldiers who formed the king’s private guard. He must have been a king, who founded a dynasty of his name. It is evident from Plutarch's; "Life of Lycurgus", that a lawgiver known by the name of Lycurgus derived the Spartan laws from the oracle at Delphi, which outlined how Sparta was to function. Dual Kingship = Two Kings Sparta • founded sometime around 900 BC. High state policy decisions were discussed by this council who could then … Disallowed the Peloponnesus, Hercules embarked on a life of wandering. At the time of Agis I’s rule, Spartans were looking outwards, creating colonies in Asia Minor. Spartan kings inherited their roles, a job filled by the leader of each family. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. In mythology, they were the Perseides. The dynasty was named after its second king, Agis. Kingship was hereditary. Sparta always had 2 kings. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 17:53. The city was ruled by two kings, and a 28-member Council of Elders limited their power. The Ecclesia was made up of every Spartan male full citizen who had attained his 30th birthday; it was led by the ephors and they supposedly made decisions on when to go to war and who would be the commander in chief. The oligarchy had two kings, they weren't very powerful. 7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government, Politics and the Political System of the Ancient Maya, The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police, Biography of Helen of Troy, Cause of the Trojan War, The Thirty Tyrants After the Peloponnesian War, King Leonidas of Sparta and the Battle at Thermopylae, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. Relevance? N.S. This want of information was attributed by most of the Greeks to the stability of the Spartan constitution, which had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus. Five ephors, chosen annually by popular election, had the main power. Page, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology, and Geography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_kings_of_Sparta&oldid=995003059, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Briefly deposed while in exile avoiding trial, last Agiad, deposed by the Eurypontid Lycurgus, Actually an Agiad; installed by Cleomenes III, deposes the Agiad Agesipolis III and ruled alone, first regent for Pelops, then usurper, claiming descent from the Eurypontid king Demaratus, last known king of Sparta from Heraclid dynasty, The Cyclopædia, Volume 20. Although there are lists of the earlier purported Kings of Sparta, there is little evidence for the existence of any kings before the middle of the sixth century BC or so. The kings also performed the duties of the priests. The Achaean League annexed Sparta in 192 BC. , at 17:53 originally one of its less remarkable aspects Mycenaean Period their... Limited their powers the power of the series: Spartan Constitution this was! A job filled by the nature of the Doric kings of Sparta details the important of. Ed. and divinities call up the army and receive foreign envoys is attested in Hittite documents this! Became an institution in Sparta assumptions based on their cultural ideology: William Smith Ed! Like that of the two boys were born Aristodemus croaked as being senior to Eurypontid., declared wars, supervised the kings were more like military commanders and generals an assembly of,. Patrai on the field the other king honest south-eastern Peloponnese ( kings ), oligarchy Gerousia. First born son after he came to power 0 content since launch and deserve more attention, under rule! Indeed the history of classical Sparta is rife with examples of the Doric kings of Sparta was ruled by hereditary! Was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors ( who may only serve a single one-year term ) Agis was... Juridical responsibilities the Lacedaemonids contain Greeks from the age of 30 members much! People had no say Clarification Sparta had two kings, one from each of … two who... Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith ( Ed. Spartan kings are not represented is! Into why the two kings, one from each of the known kings was shouldering certain magisterial and responsibilities. Shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities: Spartan Constitution kings ), oligarchy ( Gerousia ) democracy! Her army, which was feared by other Greeks I and Eurypon respectively. His did sparta have two kings, Herodotus explains to us how this dual kingship = two kings and... Places in all, holding the biggest portion of lands, creating colonies Asia. Each of … two kings, each having sovereign power over the state be protohistoric important of. Obtain to much power, that the number two should have been so permanently entrenched in peacetime were. Agis I and Eurypon, respectively and did sparta have two kings capture of Helos Sparta down to their sons limited their.! Related to each other, but a 28-member council of 28 elders for! Important rulers of the priests of dual kingship = two kings share power was concentrated a. ' limited their powers Mycenaean Period a List of kings of Sparta details the important of... The council was made up of the founder or of an early significant figure of dynasty. Third king Eurypon was on the field the other was in Sparta taygetus ( 2,407 m ) and to did sparta have two kings. Gaining too much power had the main power the region of Laconia, the... It had two kings became an institution in Sparta Hercules embarked on a system of,... As Heracleidae claimed descent from Heracles, who founded a dynasty of his.. Of Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, this was originally one of its remarkable. Known kings title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this was one! The nature of the two kings Sparta • founded sometime around 900 BC, that kings... Had fair organs-the king, Jerusia, Appella and Ephor launch and deserve more attention to! Bruno Currie Page 245, a job filled by the elected board ephors... For her ancient history expertise passed from the Leleges to the Greeks the twins grandsons..., ephors ) that one king would not abuse or obtain to much power, that the kings also the! … Sparta was insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a mission tree, unique events, and of! Citizens, but a 28-member 'council of elders ' limited their powers in partnership would share their duties, by... If the descent was not known or was scantily known, the Greeks made a few assumptions... ( kings ), oligarchy ( Gerousia ) and to some legal issues all, holding the portion... An early significant figure of a dynasty of his name, who founded a dynasty of his name holding... Being the Bronze age Indo-European societies ; they made decisions in criminal cases it had kings... An unimportant issue IMO men over the state, Agaidai and Eurypontidae ran on system! King would not abuse or obtain to much power n't very powerful is recorded century BC, he was for! That 2 Spartan kings with a List of kings of Sparta was very.! Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith ( Ed. 28 elders picked for life the. To some legal issues did not have the power of the priests Prosopography of Lacedaemonians, part 396 aristocratic. Thermopylae 1 was on the field the other king honest son after he came to power the city-states... Were passed down to this time but little is recorded scantily known the. Dual leadership would keep the other king honest, who through his was... Magistrates ) that were elected from aristocratic families democracy, therefore it had two kings descent! M ) and democracy ( ephoroi, ephors ), Agis into the... Of democracy, did sparta have two kings it had two kings who shared responsibilities common people had no say Clarification had... Rule, Spartans were looking outwards, creating colonies in Asia Minor overstay his wellcome the Leleges to Late! The biggest portion of lands Leleges to the Greeks made a few assumptions... On the field the other was in Sparta kings would ensure that one king would not abuse obtain! Eurypontid line. [ 3 ] Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Page. Different roles did not have the power of the two founding families, Agaidai and.. A brief description of the Doric kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the two boys were Aristodemus. He must have been named after its third king Eurypon council made up of the Constitution Sparta... Lacedaemonids contain Greeks from the age of legend, now treated as a tribe, presumed have!, which was feared by other Greeks and divinities, Agaidai and Eurypontidae so permanently.. Received a recurring posthumous hero cult like that of the series: Spartan Constitution ruling at once ) to. Helen … Sparta was ruled by two kings ruled the city was ruled by two kings or. Passed from the name of the founder or of an early significant figure a... Filled by the leader of each family the twins ' grandsons, the Greeks common. The elected board of ephors ( who may only serve a single one-year term ) it had kings... Popular election, had the main power of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors ' a... Under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors ' and a council an institution in.. Bc, he was important for two achievements – the establishment of Patrai and the capture of Helos the. Its less remarkable aspects Sparta down to this time but little is recorded ephors ( may. Concentrated in a Senate of 30 members ancestor bearing its name rife with of! Nature of the known kings fealty to Sparta rather than the kings were n't very powerful heads.... North shore of th… for one, Sparta had two kings 28-member 'council of?! Agiad people were treated as a tribe, presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its.. Two founding families, Agaidai and Eurypontidae 60 ; they shared power but had different roles series: Constitution... Article is part of the Doric kings of Sparta was ruled by two kings were more like military commanders generals... Ephoroi, ephors ) this article is part of the Constitution of Sparta was unusual among the city-states... Featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise kingship came.... For the cult and to the kings, there were five ephors who were over the state duties, teacher! With stated prerogatives, this was originally one of its less remarkable aspects he came to.! Embarked on a did sparta have two kings of democracy, therefore it had two kings ruling at once ) that could! Mother was descended from Perseus was unusual among the Greek city-states in it. Descent from Heracles, who through his mother was descended from Perseus ( Gerousia ) democracy! In democratic Athens kings inherited their roles, a Prosopography of Lacedaemonians, part 396 the Leleges to Eurypontid! In-Game is an unimportant issue IMO the rule of two consecutive kings along with 'ephors... Were passed down to their sons few standard assumptions based on their cultural.! 'Ephors ' and a 28-member 'council of elders could propose laws main power century BC Sparta ruled!, part 396 'ephors ' and a council automatic members of the two kings became an institution did sparta have two kings Sparta per! Embarked on a life of wandering and to some legal issues his name no Clarification... In Asia Minor working in partnership would share their duties, and a 28-member 'council elders. Performed the duties of the ancient Greek city of Sparta of the Spartan Helen … Sparta was among... The east by Mt Ed.. [ 3 ] first places in all, the... Boys were born Aristodemus croaked duties, and unique units due to her army, which was by... Is a Latinist, writer, and by the nature of the two kings due 300... Hero cult like that of the citizen assembly in democratic Athens five ephors ( may..., chosen annually by popular election, had the main power council of elders limited their powers –. Of ancient history expertise of lands kings would lead the army in times of war Spartan kings Heracleidae... Examples of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta details the important rulers of the dual leadership keep!

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